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Describe the fundamental steps of digital image processing with a neat block diagram.

Fundamental Steps of Digital Image Processing : There are some fundamental steps but as they are fundamental, all these steps may have sub-steps. The fundamental steps are described below with a neat diagram.

  1. Image Acquisition : This is the first step or process of the fundamental steps of digital image processing. Image acquisition could be as simple as being given an image that is already in digital form. Generally, the image acquisition stage involves preprocessing, such as scaling etc.
  2. Image Enhancement : Image enhancement is among the simplest and most appealing areas of digital image processing. Basically, the idea behind enhancement techniques is to bring out detail that is obscured, or simply to highlight certain features of interest in an image. Such as, changing brightness & contrast etc.
  3. Image Restoration : Image restoration is an area that also deals with improving the appearance of an image. However, unlike enhancement, which is subjective, image restoration is objective, in the sense that restoration techniques tend to be based on mathematical or probabilistic models of image degradation.
  4. Color Image Processing : Color image processing is an area that has been gaining its importance because of the significant increase in the use of digital images over the Internet. This may include color modeling and processing in a digital domain etc. Canon PowerShot SX520 16Digital Camera with 42x Optical Image Stabilized Zoom with 3-Inch LCD (Black)
  5. Wavelets and Multiresolution Processing : Wavelets are the foundation for representing images in various degrees of resolution. Images subdivision successively into smaller regions for data compression and for pyramidal representation.
  6. Compression : Compression deals with techniques for reducing the storage required to save an image or the bandwidth to transmit it. Particularly in the uses of internet it is very much necessary to compress data.
  7. Morphological Processing : Morphological processing deals with tools for extracting image components that are useful in the representation and description of shape.
  8. Segmentation : Segmentation procedures partition an image into its constituent parts or objects. In general, autonomous segmentation is one of the most difficult tasks in digital image processing. A rugged segmentation procedure brings the process a long way toward successful solution of imaging problems that require objects to be identified individually.
  9. Representation and Description : Representation and description almost always follow the output of a segmentation stage, which usually is raw pixel data, constituting either the boundary of a region or all the points in the region itself. Choosing a representation is only part of the solution for transforming raw data into a form suitable for subsequent computer processing. Description deals with extracting attributes that result in some quantitative information of interest or are basic for differentiating one class of objects from another.
  10. Object recognition : Recognition is the process that assigns a label, such as,  “vehicle” to an object based on its descriptors.
  11. Knowledge Base : Knowledge may be as simple as detailing regions of an image where the information of interest is known to be located, thus limiting the search that has to be conducted in seeking that information. The knowledge base also can be quite complex, such as an interrelated list of all major possible defects in a materials inspection problem or an image database containing high-resolution satellite images of a region in connection with change-detection applications.


  1. Will you tell me Where it comes to use "Image Processing"

    1. If you are having the course "Digital Image Processing" then at the end of each topic you will get the use of the topic. However for example, various theories and algorithms that you will learn through the course will be used in cases like X-Ray reporting, Creating various functions for software like Photo Editing, Even in NASA. Wherever you deal with digital image, you go through a processing. Like mapping the world from a far away distance image. So many examples are out there, I would recommend you to go through the course or at least the book to get these things in a more detail way.

  2. Great Job. Really Helpfull and Meaning full notes. Thank you Soo much.

  3. Replies
    1. Haven't you just copied and pasted the contents of "DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING by R.C.GONZALEZ " ?

    2. Not actually, because I studied and ten types these lines and saved for others. However, should I shut it down?

  4. will you please post some information regarding doing projects in final year engineering.i'am persuing my in electronics and communication engineering.i have been assigned as the project leader.which project is to be selected is my question.will u please suggest me.

  5. copied content from DIP by 'Rafael C. Gonzalez'

    1. So where would you think we would be studying except books and these endless resource called internet. This was our textbook for the course DIP in university and I created notes from that book and some others.

    2. That's not the note, that's the exact same line of the book.

    3. Can everything be noted? However, what's wrong with it? Do you think I should shut it down?

  6. Thanks alot brother. Ua notes wer very much useful for my exams...

  7. Thanks a lot! Great for last minute preparation...!


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